Make no mistake, dogs know calculus. My own dog can work out all the math involved to determine exactly when and where a projectile will be at an exact point in time, and then be there to meet it. She obviously isn’t doing math, but she is working things out using her emotional intelligence, and she is rarely wrong. I don’t know how she does it, but what I do know though is that she definitely has the formula for joy worked out.
The life of a Sighthound. Always alert and always aware, nothing ever goes unnoticed. She is the master of observation and the first one to jump to action. Combine her sight with her speed, and she is always first….in everything.